Поможет ли стакан молока избавиться от ощущения дискомфорта в желудке? Обозреватель BBC Future по вопросам медицины объясняет, почему молоко, наоборот, может ухудшилсягшить ваше состояние.

Что может быть лучше, чем стакан молока в случае изжоги и расстройства пищеварения? Молоко «успокаивает» желудок. К тому же, если вас тошнит от одной мысли о еде, стакан молока обеспечит организм калориями.

До 1980-х годов гастроэнтерологи советовали пациентам с язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки пить молоко для облегчения неприятных ощущений.

Кислотность молока является намного ниже, чем у желудочного сока, который вырабатывает организм. Поэтому довольно долго считалось, что молоко может облегчить боль, нейтрализуя кислоту в желудке.

Молоко действительно на некоторое время улучшает состояние. Но исследования показали, что оно стимулирует выработку желудочной кислоты, и следовательно, после непродолжительного облегчения неприятные ощущения могут вернуться вновь.

В 1976 году десять добровольцев согласились на эксперимент, который требовал немалой выносливости. Участникам опыта промыли желудки, после чего с помощью трубки через нос ввели молоко.

За час содержимое их желудков откачали и потом каждые пять минут измеряли объем желудочного сока. Исследователи обнаружили, что секреция желудочного сока в течение трех часов после потребления молока была повышенной.

Наверное, это объясняет, почему пациенты с язвой желудка испытывают боль через несколько часов после еды.

Однако выделение желудочного сока стимулирует не только молоко, но, как показали исследования, также кофе, чай и пиво.

При чем наибольший эффект имеют пиво и молоко, то есть, вопреки очевидному предположению, кислотность напитка не имеет значения.

Ранее гастроэнтерологи советовали пациентам с язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки пить молоко для облегчения неприятных симптомов, но теперь таким больным молоко больше не рекомендуют

В 1976 году ученые сравнили, как влияет на желудок цельное и обезжиренное молоко, а также молоко с низким содержанием жира. Выяснилось, что во всех трех случаях молоко повышает секрецию желудочного сока, то есть жиры не играют роли.

Как насчет кальция? Когда ученые провели опыты с молоком с низким содержанием кальция, оказалось, что желудочного сока вырабатывается действительно меньше.

Но за одним исключением — у пациентов с диагностированной язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки, которые на момент эксперимента не испытывали симптомов заболевания, секреция была повышенной.

Еще одна составляющая молока, которая, возможно, влияет на секрецию сока, — это белок казеин. Исследователи предполагают, что он стимулирует выработку гормона гастрина, который отвечает за секрецию желудочного сока, или непосредственно воздействует на клетки слизистой желудка.

В любом случае молоко больше не рекомендуют больным язвой желудка, поскольку его потребление может усилить симптомы заболевания.

Во время клинического исследования 1986 года несколько пациентов с язвой двенадцатиперстной кишки, которые находились на медикаментозном лечении, разбили на две группы.

Те, кому повезло меньше, должны были каждый день выпивать два литра молока, правда по желанию им разрешили добавлять в молоко сахар.

Вторая группа придерживалась обычной больничной диеты. И всем участникам эксперимента предлагали фрукты, чтобы общее количество потребляемых за день калорий была примерно одинаковой.

Под конец эксперимента все пациенты прошли эндоскопию.

Исследование показало, что большинство пациентов на обычной больничной диете поправились.

Молоко на некоторое время улучшает состояние, но неприятные ощущения возвращаются вновь

А вот в «молочной» группе улучшение наступило у меньшего количества пациентов, чем ожидалось изначально. Очевидно, потребление молока замедляет процесс заживления язвы.

Если у вас нет проблем со здоровьем, отказываться от молока не стоит, ведь оно является источником белков и кальция. Но может ли злоупотребление молоком вызвать проблемы?

1980 года в норвежском городе Тромсе началось семилетнее исследование состояния здоровья населения, в котором приняли участие 21 тысяча взрослых.

За эти годы в 328 участников исследования выявили язвенную болезнь (общий термин для язвы желудка и язвы двенадцатиперстной кишки).

Ученые выяснили, что риск возникновения язвы повышается в случае потребления четырех и более стаканов молока в день, прежде всего у мужчин. При этом содержание жира в молоке роли не играет.

Но именно молоко вызвало болезнь у жителей Тромсе? Трудно сказать, потому что некоторые люди пьют молоко именно с целью облегчить симптомы, когда заболевание уже началось.

Впрочем, риск развития язвы был повышен и у тех участников исследования, кто пил много молока без симптомов расстройства пищеварения.

Итак, хотя молоко на некоторое время помогает, смягчая действие желудочного сока и уменьшая неприятные ощущения, такой эффект длится всего около 20 минут.

Молоко — полезный продукт, но пищеварение оно не улучшает.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

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