Представьте, что Вы шинкуете овощи, когда — ой! — Вы порезали свой палец. Вы бежите к раковине, чтобы промыть рану, а затем готовитесь к неизбежному жжению при обработке пореза антисептиком.

Антисептическое жжение может продлиться всего несколько секунд, но почему это вообще происходит?

Ответ связан с этанолом и перекисью водорода, которые часто являются компонентами в антисептиках. Оба эти вещества активируют рецепторы в теле, которые вызывают чувство жжения, — рассказал Джозеф Глэджч (Joseph Glajch), химик-аналитик кембриджской компании Momenta Pharmaceuticals, штат Массачусетс.

Этанол активирует ваниллоидный рецептор-1, известный как VR1, — по данным исследования 2002 года, опубликованного в журнале Nature Neuroscience. VRI отвечает за жжение, когда он подвергается воздействию высокой температуры или некоторых химических веществ, таких как капсаицин, содержащийся в острых перцах, — сказал Глэджч.

VR1 как правило активируется только при высоких температурах, приблизительно 107 градусов по Фаренгейту (42 градуса Цельсия) или выше. «Обычно этого не случается, если Вы на самом деле не обожглись», — сообщил Глэджч в интервью изданию Live Science.

Однако когда этанол входит в контакт с рецептором, это понижает температурный порог ниже температуры тела, — сказал он. «Таким образом, внезапно вы чувствуете, что обожглись, хотя на самом деле вы не обжигались», — продолжает Глэджч.

Он добавил, что жжение в горле, которое чувствуют люди, когда пьют алкоголь также связано с кратковременным потенциалом рецепторов семейства ваниллоидных (TRPV). Эти рецепторы находятся по всему телу, — согласно пояснениям 2005 года, опубликованным в Журнале общей физиологии (the Journal of General Physiology).

«Этанол активирует тот же самый рецептор в пищеводе, и Вы получаете временное жжение», — говорит он. «Если же вы пьете какой-то смешанный напиток, пиво или вино — очевидно этанол не находится в достаточно высокой концентрации, чтобы включить тот рецептор».

Перекись водорода активирует другой рецептор, известный как рецептор анкирин 1, или TRPA1. Биология, стоящая за TRPA1 менее известна, чем VR1, но, скорее всего, работает аналогичным образом, — рассказал Глэджч.

«TRPA1 может создавать ощущение боли, вызванной H (2) O (2) (перекись водорода)», — по данным исследования 2008 года, опубликованного в European Journal of Neuroscience.

К счастью, жжение, вызванное этанолом или перекисью водорода, мимолетное. Кроме того — это не вредно, — отметил Глэджч.

«Это ничего не разрушает», — пояснил он. — «А происходит это в основном по причине активизации рецептора».

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