Этот чудо-продукт применяют везде — от кондитерских изделий и косметики до топлива и строительства. Но выращивание масличной пальмы наносит вред тропическим лесам. Сможем ли мы заменить ее?

Пальмовое масло, очевидно, есть в шампуне, которым вы утром помыли голову, в мыле, зубной пасте, витаминах или косметике, которой вы воспользовались.

Она есть в хлебе, который вы поджарили на завтрак, а также в маргарине и сливках, которые вы добавили в кофе. Корову, которая дала молоко для сливочного масла или сыра, вероятно также кормили пальмовым маслом.

Следовательно, вы потребляете пальмовое масло, скорее всего, ежедневно.

Даже транспортное средство, которым вы доехали до работы — автобус, поезд или авто — работает на топливе, которое содержит пальмовое масло. Да и электричество, которое питает устройство, на котором вы читаете эту статью, частично также генерируется от сжигания ядер масличных пальм.

Пальмовое масло присутствует в половине всех потребительских товаров и играет значительную роль в промышленности. 2018 году производство пальмового масла в мире составило 77 млн тонн, до 2024-го она вырастет до 107,6 млн тонн.

Такая распространенность пальмового масла объясняется его уникальными химическими свойствами.

Ее вырабатывают из семян западноафриканского масличной пальмы. Отсутствие цвета и запаха делает ее удобной пищевой добавкой.

Пальмовое масло имеет высокую температуру плавления и содержит много насыщенных жиров, благодаря чему идеально подходит для кондитерских изделий, которые «тают во рту»

Пальмовое масло имеет высокую температуру плавления и содержит много насыщенных жиров, благодаря чему идеально подходит для кремов и кондитерских изделий, которые тают во рту.

Много других растительных масел для этого нуждаются гидрогенизации — добавление атомов водорода к молекулам жира. В результате образуются нездоровые трансжиры.

Пальмовое масло также выдерживает высокие температуры, к примеру, во время приготовления пищи и устойчива к порче, что придает продуктам длительный срок хранения.

Масличные пальмы является также выгодной сільгоспкультурою, они нетребовательны, растут даже в малопригодном почве. Именно поэтому площадь выращивания этой культуры в последние годы быстро растет.

Но это приводит к массовой вырубке лесов в Индонезии и Малайзии, и следовательно до уничтожения природной среды многих видов, которым грозит исчезновение, например, орангутангам.

По данным Global Forest Watch, между 2001 и 2018 годами Индонезия потеряла более 25 млн га древесного покрова — территория, равная площади Новой Зеландии.

Это заставило правительства и предприятия задуматься о более безопасную альтернативу пальмовому маслу.

Нежной текстурой кондитерские изделия обязаны именно пальмовом масле

Но заменить чудо-изделие не просто. Исландская сеть супермаркетов 2018 года объявила, что не будет добавлять пальмовое масло в ни один продукт своей собственной марки.

Однако в реальности это оказалось не так просто, и в следующем году компания просто убрала свою марку из названия товаров.

Самый распространенный способ решить проблему — это поиск других растительных масел, которые имеют схожие свойства.

Так, британский косметический бренд LUSH вместо пальмового масла начал использовать смесь рапсового и кокосового масла. А затем разработал мыльную основу Movis, которая содержит подсолнечное масло, какао-масло, кокосовое масло холодного отжима и зародыши пшеницы.

Ученые, которые разрабатывают продукты и косметику, экспериментируют с еще более экзотическими альтернативами, как масло ши, жожоба, кокума, іліпе, ятрофи и манго.

Частично гидрированное смесь этих «экзотических масел» имеет свойства, похожие на пальмовое масло.

Но ни один из этих ингредиентов не является таким дешевым и доступным.

Под плантации масличной пальмы уничтожают тропические леса — естественная среда многих видов, которым грозит исчезновение

Найти заменитель для пальмового масла сложно еще и потому, что она является важным ингредиентом корма для скота.

Исследователи Познанского университета естественных наук в Польше попытались выяснить, можно ли пальмовое масло в корме для цыплят заменить более экологичным источником питания насекомыми.

Птиц кормили кормом с добавлением масла мучного червя вместо пальмового. Цыплята хорошо росли, качество мяса их также улучшилась.

Зеленое топливо

Впрочем, более половины импортируемой в Евросоюз в 2017 году пальмового масла пошла не на пищевые продукты, а другие нужды — топливо.

ЕС поставил себе амбициозную цель — к 2020 году более 10% энергии автомобильного транспорта должно поступать из возобновляемых источников, главным из которых является биодизельное топливо, которое изготавливают из пальмового масла.

Но в 2019 году ЕС объявил, что придется прекратить изготавливать биотопливо из пальмового масла и других пищевых культур за вред экологии.

Одной из возможных альтернатив являются водоросли. Масло из определенных видов водорослей может быть превращено на неочищенную нефть, из которой производят различные виды топлива, в частности, дизельное, реактивное и даже тяжелое транспортное топливо.

Это не должно удивлять. Много нефтяных месторождений в мире есть на самом деле окаменевшими остатками водорослей.

Масло можно добывать из водорослей, но выращивать их в масштабе пальмового масла, пока что не возможно

По мнению растительного генетика Дэвида Нельсона, микроскопические водоросли, распространенные в Абу-Даби, могут быть вполне удачной альтернативой пальмовом масле.

В прошлом году Honda установила на своем заводе в Огайо экспериментальную ферму водорослей. А биотехнологическая фирма Solazyme в Сан-Франциско уже разработала водоростеве топливо для автомобильной, военной и авиаотрасли.

Впрочем, главной проблемой остается производство этих продуктов в масштабах, которые могли бы конкурировать с объемами пальмового масла.

Некоторые компании также исследуют дрожжи как потенциальный источник альтернативной масла. Но эти разработки находятся на еще более ранней стадии, чем масло из водорослей.

Есть и еще одна проблема с производством масла из водорослей или дрожжей. Наиболее контролируемый и эффективный способ их выращивания — в больших закрытых чанах, куда необходимо добавлять сахар.

Этот сахар также нужно где-то выращивать, следовательно, экологическое воздействие конечного продукта просто перемещается в другое место.

Новые листья

Если заменить пальмовое масло сложно, возможно, мы могли бы научиться производить ее более экологически.

Масличные пальмы очень плодородные и неприхотливы в выращивании

Пальмовое масло стоит так дешево, потому что масличная пальма является удивительной культурой. Она относительно быстро растет, дает хороший урожай, который несложно собирать.

С одного гектара масличной пальмы производят четыре тонны масла в год, а с такой же площади рапса — 0,67 тонны, подсолнечника — 0,48 тонн и сои — только 0,38 тонны масла.

Однако масличная пальма растет лишь в пределах 20 градусов от экватора — местности, где расположены тропические леса и обитает 80% всех видов животных мира.

Чтобы сохранить тропические леса, мы должны были бы создать растение, такую же плодородную, как масличная пальма, но способную расти в любом месте. Над этим работает растениевод Кайл Рейнольдс и его команда ученых из австралийского исследовательского центра CSIRO.

Расчистка тропических лесов в Малайзии и Индонезии уничтожает последнее природную среду орангутангов

В своей лаборатории в Канберре исследователи CSIRO ввели гены масличной пальмы в лиственные растения, как табак и сорго. Обычно листья табака содержат менее 1% масла, но растения Рейнольдса имеют целых 35%, то есть они могут дать больше масла, чем соя.

Впрочем, впереди еще немало работы. В США эти растения пока не прижились, возможно, из-за особенности климата.

А в Австралии выращивания генетически модифицированных видов запрещено.

К тому же масло, которое производят из табака, довольно заметно отличается от пальмового. Жирные кислоты, которые входят в ее состав, являются менее насыщенными.

Это означает, что для получения одинаковых свойств понадобится обработка. Рейнольдс, однако, отмечает, что разработка нового и усовершенствованного масляного табака может занять около 12 месяцев — если есть желающие инвестировать в исследования.

«Это огромная отрасль, нынешняя стоимость масличной пальмы — 67 млрд долл. США», — говорит исследователь.

«Мы, без сомнения, сможем производить пальмовое масло еще и с других растений, но какова будет ее стоимость — это вопрос», — добавляет он

Понятно, что сейчас пальмовое масло невозможно ни избежать, ни заменить. Но для создания экологических альтернатив является научный потенциал.

Все, что нужно, — это желание осуществить эти изменения. Желание такое же повсеместное, как и сама пальмовое масло.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

Хотите поделиться с нами своими жизненными историями? Напишите о себе на адрес questions.ukrainian@bbc.co.uk и наши журналисты с вами свяжутся.

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Также на эту тему

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