Тонкая граница между правдой и ложью становится хрупкой. В политике и бизнесе люди все чаще прибегают к искажение и сокрытие фактов, считая такое поведение вполне допустимым.

Не секрет, что политики постоянно врут, но представьте, что часто они делают это, говоря чистую правду и ничего кроме правды. Звучит абсурдно?

Но подумайте, что мы все время от времени делаем то же самое. Классический пример, когда мама спрашивает вас, сделали ли вы домашнее задание, а вы отвечаете: «Я написала сочинение по творчеству Теннесси Уильямса».

Это может быть полной правдой, но фактически на вопрос о домашнем задание вы не ответили. Произведение мог быть написан давно, а уроки вы еще и не начинали делать. И следовательно, своей маме вы солгали.

Такой вид лжи, когда вы вроде говорите правду, но на самом деле обманываете, является очень распространенным. Английском для него даже существует отдельное название — palter «кривить душой», «хитрить», «искажать факты».

Это явление позволяет нам лучше понять «серую» зону между правдой и ложью, и, возможно, также откуда вообще привычка врать.

Большинство из нас говорит неправду чаще одного раза в день

Мы говорим ложь почти постоянно, несмотря на то, что ложь требует от нас больших интеллектуальных усилий, чем правда.

Авраам Линкольн как-то пошутил, что «ни один из нас не имеет достаточно хорошей памяти, чтобы быть успешным лжецом».

В 1996 году исследовательница Белла Деполо посчитала, как часто люди врут. Она обнаружила, что каждый из нас говорит неправду примерно один-два раза в день.

Я сказала ей, что она в прекрасной форме, хотя на самом деле она выглядела толстой

Исследовательница попросила участников эксперимента в течение недели записывать, сколько раз они говорили неправду, даже если это была «белая» ложь.

Из 147 участников только семь заявили, что не соврали ни разу. Но говорили ли они правду?

А ложь, в которой признались другие участники эксперимента, была преимущественно невинной или даже с добрыми намерениями: «Я сказала ей, что она в прекрасной форме, хотя на самом деле она выглядела толстой.

Кое-кто врал от неловкости, скрывая, к примеру, факт, что их мужа или жену уволили.

Профессор Деполо, которая изучает психологию в Калифорнийском университете в Санта-Барбаре, говорит, что участникам эксперимента было довольно трудно определить, как часто они врали, потому что, как правило, ложь была такой заурядной, что они и не замечали, что говорили ее».

Совсем другая ситуация, когда лгут, чтобы манипулировать людьми или намеренно вводить их в заблуждение. И это происходит чаще, чем вы предполагаете.

То, что вам кажется правдой, не всегда так

Другой исследователь Тодд Роджерс и его коллеги изучали поведение политиков во время дебатов. Часто, чтобы уклониться от ответа на вопрос, они отмечают какой-то другой правдивый факт.

Или основывают свой ответ на том, что вроде бы является очевидной истиной, хотя в действительности это не так.

Политики делают это постоянно, говорит Роджерс, который исследует поведенческую психологию в Гарвардской школе Кеннеди. Он и его коллеги решили заняться этим вопросом глубже.

Они выяснили, что введение в заблуждение якобы истинным высказыванием является очень распространенной тактикой ведения переговоров.

Более половины из 184 руководителей предприятий, которые приняли участие в их исследовании, признали, что регулярно прибегают к ней.

Кроме того, исследование показало, что эту тактику они считают более этичной за откровенную ложь.

А вот те, кого такие высказывания ввели в заблуждение, не видят разницы между ними и настоящей ложью, подчеркивает Роджерс.

Выявить ложный «факт» является, прежде всего, сложно, когда высказывание, на первый взгляд, кажется вполне правдоподобным.

Политики постоянно манипулируют правдой

Когда британская лейбористская партия предложила снизить возрастной ценз на выборах, в своем агитационном ролике она гласила: «Вам 16. Вы имеете право жениться, служить в армии и работать полный рабочий день».

Однако после того, как команда фактчекінгу BBC проверила эту информацию, не все оказалось правдой.

Поступить на службу в армию в возрасте 16-17 лет можно лишь с разрешения родителей, так же как и для того, чтобы жениться, за исключением Шотландии.

От 2013 года 16 и 17-летним лицам не разрешено работать полный рабочий день в Англии, но с некоторыми ограничениями это возможно в Шотландии, Уэльсе и Северной Ирландии.

И даже когда мы замечаем недостоверную информацию, социальные нормы часто не позволяют нам докапываться до истины, как это умеют делать некоторые дотошные журналисты.

Мы хотим выгодно продать дом или автомобиль, но также хотим, чтобы нас считали честными и порядочными

Искажение фактов присуще не только речам политиков.

Вот, например, агент по недвижимости. На вопрос покупателя, сколько ценовых предложений было сделано по определенному дому, он отвечает, что было много запросов, хотя прекрасно знает, что этот объект не пользуется популярностью.

Или продавец подержанных автомобилей, который отмечает, что авто быстро завелось прошлым морозным утром, умалчивая о том, что оно сломалось неделей ранее.

И агент, и продавец автомобилей фактически не лгут, но они мастерски скрывают от покупателей истинное положение вещей.

Распространенность такой тактики, вероятно, объясняется тем, что наши цели часто противоречат друг другу.

«С одной стороны, мы пытаемся выгодно продать дом или автомобиль, а с другой, хотим, чтобы нас считали честными и порядочными людьми», — объясняет Роджерс.

Введение в заблуждение якобы правдивыми фактами являются очень распространенной тактикой в речах политиков

Извращая факты, но избегая откровенной лжи, люди уверены, что они не ведут себя бесчестно.

«Мы доказываем им, что они ошибаются», — говорит Роджерс.

Дело в том, что такая точка зрения вызывает много проблем в современном обществе.

Люди устали от постоянной лжи, и доверие к политикам резко падает. Один опрос 2016 года показало, что британцы доверяют политикам меньше, чем агентам недвижимости, банкирам и журналистам.

Роберт Фельдман, психолог и автор книги The Liar in Your Life «Лжец в вашей жизни», считает этот кризис весьма тревожной, как на личном, так и на общественном уровне.

Врать — нечестно, но именно так устроена человеческая психика

«Когда нам лгут люди при власти, это разрушает нашу уверенность в политических институтах и распространяет скептическое отношение к политикам и их истинных мотивов», — пишет автор.

Ложь очевидно служит коварным социальным целям. Она украшает факты и помогает избежать ответа на неудобные вопросы. «Врать — нечестно, это препятствует демократическим принципам, но именно так устроена человеческая психика», — отмечает Роджерс.

Мы учимся говорить неправду с раннего детства. Мы рассказываем своим детям о зубных фей и Санта-Клауса и побуждаем их благодарить за подарок, который им не понравился.

«Мы стараемся передать детям довольно противоречивые моральные принципы», — отмечает Фельдман.

«И в конце концов они осознают, что хотя быть честным — важно, иногда вполне допустимо и даже правильно соврать».

Следовательно, когда какие-то факты кажутся вам странными или кто-то упорно уклоняется от ответа, будьте внимательны, возможно, это — правда, за которой скрывается ложь.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

212 КОММЕНТАРИИ

  1. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get bought an impatience over that you
    wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again since exactly
    the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

    My website: http://khoquet.com/

  2. I definitely wanted to jot down a word so as to appreciate you for the lovely tips you are giving here.
    My considerable internet lookup has now been honored with reputable facts and strategies to
    go over with my best friends. I ‘d suppose that most of
    us website visitors are definitely fortunate to be in a great network
    with very many brilliant professionals with beneficial basics.
    I feel somewhat fortunate to have discovered your site and look forward to
    plenty of more entertaining times reading here. Thank you once again for a lot of things.

    Also visit my homepage frun-test.sakura.ne.jp

  3. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point.
    You clearly know what youre talking about, why throw
    away your intelligence on just posting videos to your
    site when you could be giving us something informative
    to read?

    my homepage … kebe.top

  4. We’re a bunch of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.

    Your site provided us with valuable information to work on. You have performed an impressive process and our entire neighborhood will likely be grateful to you.

  5. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after browsing through a few of the
    posts I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m definitely pleased I discovered it and I’ll be bookmarking
    it and checking back frequently!

    Also visit my web blog lubertsi.net

  6. I wanted to send a simple comment so as to appreciate
    you for these superb instructions you are writing here.
    My rather long internet search has finally been compensated with good
    suggestions to write about with my company.
    I would admit that many of us site visitors are
    undeniably fortunate to dwell in a great network with many special professionals with very helpful basics.
    I feel quite blessed to have used the weblog and look forward to many more entertaining moments reading here.
    Thanks a lot again for everything.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site … clubriders.men

  7. This is really attention-grabbing, You’re an excessively skilled
    blogger. I have joined your feed and stay up for in search of
    extra of your excellent post. Also, I have shared your
    website in my social networks!

    My web blog :: eqt8.cn

  8. The next time I read a blog, Hopefully it won’t disappoint
    me just as much as this one. I mean, Yes, it was my choice to read through,
    but I truly believed you’d have something interesting to say.

    All I hear is a bunch of whining about something you can fix if you weren’t too busy searching for attention.

    Also visit my page: http://www.aniene.net

  9. Great — I should certainly pronounce, impressed with
    your web site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related information ended up being truly simple to do to access.
    I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least.
    Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who
    add forums or something, web site theme . a tones way
    for your client to communicate. Nice task.

    Also visit my page; http://www.meteoritegarden.com

  10. Admiring the time and effort you put into your blog and
    detailed information you present. It’s awesome to come across a
    blog every once in a while that isn’t the same outdated rehashed material.
    Great read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your
    RSS feeds to my Google account.

    Feel free to visit my web page — http://khoquet.com/

  11. Awesome site you have here but I was curious about if you knew of any community forums
    that cover the same topics talked about in this article?
    I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get advice from
    other experienced people that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Cheers!

    Here is my webpage :: mpc-install.com

  12. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of.
    I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they
    just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as
    well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal.
    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

    My blog post … mpc-install.com

  13. Its like you learn my mind! You appear to understand a
    lot about this, such as you wrote the book in it or something.
    I believe that you can do with some p.c. to force the message house a bit, but instead of that, that is wonderful
    blog. An excellent read. I’ll definitely be back.

    my blog … Darrell

  14. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the page layout of your
    site? Its very well written; I love what youve got
    to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better.
    Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or 2 images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

    Feel free to surf to my web blog :: mpc-install.com

  15. I leave a comment when I like a post on a website or I have something to contribute to the conversation.
    Usually it’s caused by the fire communicated in the article
    I looked at. And on this article А всегда ли вы говорите правду, когда не врете?.
    I was moved enough to drop a thought 😉 I actually do have 2 questions for you if you
    usually do not mind. Could it be only me or do a few of these
    remarks look as if they are left by brain dead individuals?
    😛 And, if you are posting at additional social sites, I would like to keep up with
    anything fresh you have to post. Could you list all of all your shared sites like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or
    twitter feed?

    Here is my website … http://chengdian.cc

  16. I want to show my thanks to this writer just for rescuing me from this issue.
    As a result of surfing around through the online world and coming across proposals
    that were not pleasant, I figured my entire life was
    over. Existing without the presence of approaches to
    the difficulties you have solved by way of your good guide is a critical case,
    as well as the ones that would have negatively affected my entire career if I hadn’t noticed your web site.

    The ability and kindness in maneuvering almost everything was important.
    I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not discovered such a point like this.
    I can at this time look forward to my future. Thanks very much for this reliable and sensible help.
    I won’t hesitate to refer your web sites to anybody who
    will need recommendations on this subject matter.

    My website :: http://agrowbot.etvamerica.com/

  17. I just wanted to thank you yet again for the amazing site you have produced here.
    Its full of ideas for those who are actually interested in that subject, in particular this very post.

    Your all really sweet and also thoughtful of others and also
    reading your blog posts is a fantastic delight in my opinion. And thats
    a generous present! Tom and I are going to have pleasure making use of
    your tips in what we need to do in the future. Our
    list is a kilometer long so your tips will certainly be put to great use.

    My web-site http://www.tshopping.com.tw

  18. First off I would like to say fantastic blog! I had
    a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you do not mind.
    I was curious to know how you center yourself and clear your mind prior to writing.

    I have had a tough time clearing my thoughts in getting my thoughts out.
    I truly do enjoy writing however it just seems like
    the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be wasted just trying to
    figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or tips?
    Thank you!

    Also visit my webpage — clubriders.men

  19. Hey there I am so thrilled I found your webpage, I really found you
    by mistake, while I was looking on Yahoo for something
    else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a incredible
    post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the
    theme/design), I don’t have time to read through it all at the moment but
    I have saved it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have
    time I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up
    the excellent work.

    Also visit my site; https://kebe.top/

  20. Undeniably consider that that you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be at the web the easiest thing to remember of.
    I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while other folks think about issues that they just do not know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also outlined out the
    whole thing with no need side effect , folks could take a signal.
    Will probably be again to get more. Thanks

    my blog: https://mpc-install.com

  21. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My site has a lot of unique content I’ve either created
    myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is
    popping it up all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any
    ways to help protect against content from being ripped off?
    I’d really appreciate it.

    Here is my web blog — https://www.qiurom.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=757274

  22. I definitely wanted to make a simple word to thank you
    for these unique items you are sharing at
    this website. My incredibly long internet search has at the end been compensated with high-quality concept
    to go over with my neighbours. I would state that that most
    of us readers are rather blessed to dwell in a useful place with very many awesome people with great secrets.

    I feel somewhat happy to have encountered the website and look forward to really more pleasurable times reading here.
    Thanks again for everything.

    Also visit my web-site https://kebe.top/viewtopic.php?id=1805866

  23. We would like to thank you just as before for
    the gorgeous ideas you gave Jesse when preparing her own post-graduate research in addition to, most importantly, for providing all of the ideas within a blog post.
    Provided that we had known of your website a year ago, we may have been kept from the unnecessary measures we were choosing.
    Thank you very much.

    My website :: http://clubriders.men/viewtopic.php?id=354701

  24. Hmm it seems like your website ate my first comment (it
    was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up
    what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I too am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to everything.

    Do you have any helpful hints for newbie blog writers?
    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

    Feel free to visit my blog post :: agrowbot.etvamerica.com

  25. Hello would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with?
    I’m going to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your layout seems different
    then most blogs and I’m looking for something
    unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic
    but I had to ask!

    Visit my blog :: http://bbs.shishiedu.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=157954

  26. I became honored to obtain a call from a friend as soon as he observed
    the important tips shared on your site. Browsing your blog post is a
    real great experience. Thanks again for thinking about
    readers at all like me, and I would like for you the best of achievements like a professional in this
    realm.

    my blog :: kannikar.com

  27. I wanted to thank you once again for that amazing website you have created here.

    It really is full of ideas for those who are
    definitely interested in this subject, particularly this very post.
    You’re really all absolutely sweet and thoughtful of others plus reading the blog posts is a wonderful delight to me.
    And exactly what a generous surprise! Mary and I usually have
    excitement making use of your ideas in what we should do next
    week. Our collection of ideas is a kilometer long which means your tips
    will be put to beneficial use.

    My page; Albertha

  28. Just wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness to
    your put up is simply excellent and that i could suppose you are an expert on this subject.
    Well together with your permission let me to snatch your RSS feed to keep updated with coming near near post.
    Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site :: bbs.shishiedu.com

  29. First off I would like to say terrific blog! I had a quick question that I’d like
    to ask if you do not mind. I was interested to find out how you center yourself and
    clear your mind prior to writing. I have had a tough time
    clearing my thoughts in getting my thoughts out. I truly do take pleasure in writing however it just seems like the
    first 10 to 15 minutes are lost just trying to figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or tips?
    Appreciate it!

    Also visit my page: https://www.qijiang520.com/

  30. My spouse and i were now excited Ervin could do his
    inquiry while using the ideas he acquired while using the weblog.
    It is now and again perplexing to simply happen to be offering tips and
    hints which usually most people may have been making
    money from. And we all consider we have got the writer to be grateful
    to for this. The main illustrations you have made, the easy
    site menu, the relationships you can help to engender — it’s all excellent, and it’s letting our son and our
    family understand that issue is awesome, and that’s extraordinarily vital.
    Many thanks for all!

    Feel free to visit my site — http://exterminatorsouthflorida.com

  31. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot
    about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.

    I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a
    little bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog.
    A fantastic read. I’ll certainly be back.

    my website … khoquet.com

  32. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is needed to get setup?
    I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very internet smart so I’m not 100% positive.
    Any recommendations or advice would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks

    My website overcoders.com

  33. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Rarely do I
    come across a blog that’s both educative and engaging, and let
    me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head.
    The issue is something which not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.

    I am very happy I found this in my search for something relating to
    this.

    My blog post clubriders.men

  34. I feel this is one of the so much important
    info for me. And i am satisfied studying your article.
    But want to observation on few normal issues, The
    web site taste is wonderful, the articles is truly excellent :
    D. Just right task, cheers

    my blog post Lupe

  35. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of
    any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.

    Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

    Also visit my webpage; https://www.qijiang520.com/thread-104236-1-1.html

  36. I have been surfing on-line more than three hours lately,
    but I by no means found any attention-grabbing article like
    yours. It is pretty price sufficient for me. In my
    view, if all website owners and bloggers made excellent content material as you did,
    the web will probably be a lot more helpful than ever before.

    Here is my site: Mega Arise Max

  37. I seldom leave a response, however i did some
    searching and wound up here А всегда ли вы говорите правду, когда не врете?.

    And I actually do have some questions for you if it’s allright.
    Is it only me or does it give the impression like some of the remarks appear like they are
    coming from brain dead visitors? 😛 And, if you are posting on other online sites, I would like to follow everything new you have to post.

    Could you make a list of every one of all your communal pages
    like your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?

    My webpage :: adaptivercsailer.com

  38. Hey there great blog! Does running a blog similar to this take a great deal of work?
    I have virtually no understanding of coding but I was hoping to start my own blog
    soon. Anyways, if you have any ideas or techniques for
    new blog owners please share. I know this is
    off subject but I simply had to ask. Thank you!

    Also visit my website; https://aida-ro.com/foro/index.php?action=profile;u=119381

  39. My programmer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using WordPress on a number of websites for
    about a year and am concerned about switching to another platform.
    I have heard good things about blogengine.net.
    Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress content into
    it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    Feel free to visit my website :: https://yunke029.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=1336150&do=profile&from=space

  40. I would like to consider the chance of saying thanks to you for your professional advice I have constantly enjoyed checking out your site.
    I’m looking forward to the commencement of my university research and the whole preparation would never have
    been complete without coming to your web blog.
    If I can be of any help to others, I will be ready to help through what I have discovered from here.

    My blog post :: treatment process

  41. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your content
    seem to be running off the screen in Ie. I’m not sure if this
    is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let
    you know. The layout look great though! Hope you get the problem
    resolved soon. Thanks

    Feel free to visit my website potato diet

  42. Many thanks for being my personal teacher on this subject matter.

    My partner and i enjoyed the article very much and most of all
    preferred the way in which you handled the issues I thought to
    be controversial. You’re always very kind to readers really like me and aid me in my lifestyle.
    Thank you.

    Also visit my web blog :: hemp seed

  43. Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform
    are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because
    I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at options for another
    platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Also visit my blog :: fat loss diets

  44. I would like to express my love for your generosity supporting men who have the need for help on that area of interest.
    Your very own commitment to getting the solution all through turned
    out to be definitely advantageous and have really permitted associates just like me to achieve their goals.
    Your personal invaluable recommendations means so much to me and further more to my office workers.

    Thanks a ton; from all of us.

    Also visit my web page … healthy diets

  45. Hmm it appears like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum
    it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.

    I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing.

    Do you have any tips and hints for novice blog writers?

    I’d certainly appreciate it.

    my web blog … hair growth

  46. hello there and thank you for your info — I have certainly picked up something new from right here.
    I did however expertise several technical issues using this site, as I experienced to reload the site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
    I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK?

    Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect
    your placement in google and could damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much more of your respective intriguing
    content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

    Look at my website — lose weight

  47. I am commenting to make you understand of the great encounter my friend’s
    daughter obtained viewing your blog. She even learned so many issues, not to mention what it’s like to have an excellent helping nature to make certain people completely know a number of specialized things.
    You actually exceeded our expected results.
    Thanks for supplying the beneficial, trusted, revealing and as well
    as fun tips about the topic to Janet.

    Also visit my web page; growing mini-course

ОСТАВЬТЕ КОММЕНТАРИЙ

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here