Американскими учеными разработаны наночастицы, которые смогут проникнуть в иммунные клетки и активируют их для ведения борьбы с раком. Статью исследователей ученых из Центра исследований рака Фреда Хатчинсона опубликовал журнал Nature Nanotechnology. Краткий обзор статьи размещен на портале EurekAlert

Наночастицы, созданные учеными, способны переносить гены, которые кодируют CAR (химерные антигенные рецепторы). В этих белках заключены антитела, которые связываются с чужеродными веществами (антигенами), и участками, активирующими Т-клетки. Очутившись внутри клеток, CAR осуществляют перепрограммирование лимфоцитов и настраивают их к борьбе с раковыми клетками, на поверхности которых находятся соответствующие антигены.

Чтобы произошло модифицирование Т-клеток, она должны быть выделены из тела больного, а затем в них должны быть внедрены генетические конструкции. Наночастицы вводятся в человеческий организм, затем они осуществляют проникновение внутрь ядра лимфоцитов и растворяются, выпустив гены CAR. Далее гены CAR осуществляют интеграцию в хромосомы, где кодируют антигенные рецепторы.

Протестировав наночастицы, ученые выясняли, что наночастицы могут перепрограммировать большое количество Т-клеток. Опыт осуществлялся на мышах, в результате выживаемость мышей с лейкемией увеличивалась в среднем на 58 дней. Специалисты, однако утверждают, что необходимо проведение дополнительных исследований, до того, как испытывать на людях новейший метод иммунотерапии.

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