У каждого — свои способы, как выжить в стужу. Но уверены ли вы, что делаете это правильно? Обозреватель BBC Future развенчивает несколько популярных мифов.

1. Вентилятор только для жары

Идея включить вентилятор, когда холодно, кажется абсурдной. Впрочем, много потолочных вентиляторов имеют функцию обратного движения.

Теплый воздух, как известно, поднимается вверх. Оно не задерживается на той высоте, где сидят люди, прежде всего в помещениях с высокими потолками.

Когда вентилятор работает на низкий скорости в обратном направлении, теплый воздух направляется на стены и начинает циркулировать в комнате, согревая ее жителей.

ВЫВОД: НЕПРАВДА. В зависимости от того, как устроена ваша комната, вентилятор на низкой скорости помогает распространять тепло в помещении.

2. Алкоголь хорошо согревает

Что может быть лучше глотка согревающего на морозе? Фляжка со спиртным — атрибут альпиниста еще с XVIII века, а глинтвейн — неизменно популярный на горнолыжных курортах и сегодня.

Алкоголь, когда вы замерзли, создает ощущение тепла в организме. Кровь приливает к коже и она краснеет и становится более теплой на ощупь.

У каждого свои представления, как не простудиться в холодную погоду, но многие из них — миф

Но это также означает, что в основных частях телах кровообращение уменьшается и температура тела внутри снижается.

Вы чувствуете себя гораздо приятнее и если в этот момент вы находитесь в помещении, небольшое снижение температуры тела не имеет значения. Впрочем, если вы остаетесь на морозе, согревающий эффект алкоголя не продлится долго.

Даже больше, если, хорошо выпив, вы окажетесь на улице, это может быть даже опасно. Алкоголь заглушает дрожь, что является естественной реакцией на замерзание, и снижает наше чувство холода.

Под влиянием алкоголя также снижается наша способность адекватно оценивать ситуацию. Поэтому становятся понятными истории о том, как люди по дороге домой из бара, замерзали в ледяной канаве.

По статистике США, 10% смертей в результате переохлаждения связанные с употреблением алкоголя.

ВЫВОД: ПРАВДА ЛИШЬ НАПОЛОВИНУ. Алкоголь согревает кожу и дает ощущение тепла, но общая температура тела снижается. Это может привести к переохлаждению.

3. Если сидеть на батарее, можно заработать себе геморрой

Этот миф существует уже достаточно давно. Как и идея о том, что сидение на холодной поверхности может иметь такие же последствия. Геморрой — это узловые образования в прямой кишке, которые сопровождаются зудом и болью.

Это заболевание случается в разные периоды жизни у каждого второго человека.

Во многих странах северного полушария температура зимой опускается ниже нуля

Впрочем, не существует никаких доказательств того, что его причиной может быть горячая температура или тепло может ухудшить состояние больного.

На самом деле немецкие исследователи обнаружили обратное. Люди, которые по крайней мере раз в неделю принимают ванну (а вода в ней обычно довольно горячая), имеют меньший риск развития геморроя.

А истинной причиной заболевания являются частые запоры и сидячий образ жизни.

ВЫВОД: НЕПРАВДА. Сидения на теплой поверхности не приведет к геморрою. А чтобы действительно предотвратить болезни, употребляйте в пищу много клетчатки (овощи, крупы, орехи), пейте больше воды и избегайте избыточного веса.

4. Если выйти на улицу с влажными волосами, простуду гарантированно

Мы все это слышали в детстве. И хотя простуду, конечно, вызывают вирусы, может переохлаждение ослабить наш иммунитет?

Исследователь Рон Экклз из Университета Кардиффа в Великобритании провел эксперимент.

Одна группа участников должна была в течение 20 минут держать ноги в холодной воде, после чего они возвращались к своей обычной жизни.

Вторая, контрольная группа опускала ноги в пустое ведро, не снимая обуви, и также сидела так в течение 20 минут. Через пять дней в группе с холодной водой сообщили о простуде вдвое больше людей, чем в группе с пустым ведром.

Следует отметить, что исследователи полагалась на собственную оценку состояния здоровья волонтеров.

Риск простудиться в морозную погоду выше?

Но почему влажные ноги или влажные волосы повышают риск простуды?

Одно из объяснений — когда вам холодно, кровеносные сосуды в носу и горле сужаются, и в них попадает меньше белых кровяных клеток, которые защищают наш организм от вирусов.

Другое предположение заключается в том, что зимой люди больше времени проводят в помещениях, где микробы быстрее передаются.

Исследовательница Энис Ловен из Медицинской школы Эмори в США изучала этот вопрос на морских свинках.

Ее эксперименты показали, что теплый сухой воздух (типичное для наших домов зимой) является идеальным для распространения вирусов.

ВЫВОД: НЕИЗВЕСТНО. Сама по себе прогулка на морозе с влажными волосами не повлечет за собой простуду. Но если вы уже подхватили вирус, вашему организму будет труднее бороться с ним.

5. На холоде надо обязательно надевать шапку, потому что большинство тепла мы теряем через голову

Очевидно, когда на улице минусовая погода, имеет смысл одеваться как можно теплее. Но действительно ли мы должны прежде всего держать в тепле голову?

Чтобы узнать правду о извечный вопрос надевать или не надевать шапку, волонтерам пришлось принять участие в крайне неприятных испытаниях.

В ходе одного из них участникам давали медикаменты, которые предотвращали дрожанию тела. После этого они погружались в холодную воду с аквалангом для дыхания.

Во время различных занурювань они были или в гидрокостюмах с носками и рукавчиками, или только в купальниках. Они также полностью или ныряли под воду или оставляли голову над водой.

Действительно ли так важно надевать шапку на холоде?

Эксперименты показали, что мы теряем больше тепла от тела, чем от головы.

Также, если тело находится в тепле, а голова — в холоде, общая температура тела также снижается быстрее, чем можно было бы ожидать.

Наверное, это объясняется тем, что когда на холоде только голова, а не все тело, мы не тремтімо, а именно дрожание помогает нашему организму сохранить тепло.

К тому же кожа головы содержит много кровеносных сосудов, а значит, когда голова открыта, кровь быстро охлаждается.

Следовательно, когда температура воздуха опускается ниже нуля, в идеале надо защищать от холода как тело, так и голову.

ВЫВОД: ПРАВДА, что для того, чтобы согреться, надо надевать шапку. НЕПРАВДА, что большинство тепла мы теряем через голову.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

Хотите поделиться с нами своими жизненными историями? Напишите о себе на адрес questions.ukrainian@bbc.co.uk и наши журналисты с вами свяжутся.

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Также на эту тему

  • Жизнь
  • Здоровья
  • Всемирная организация здравоохранения (ВОЗ)

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