Сколько и как мы разговариваем с детьми, имеет непосредственное значение для развития их мозга.

С новорожденным, конечно, не так много тем для разговоров. Младенец не расстроится, когда вы сообщите ему, что будет дождь. И не улыбнется в ответ на шутку.

К тому же, первые недели жизни малыша — трудное время для родителей. Ребенок не спит, когда надо, поэтому не удивительно, что истощенные мама и папа не имеют много вдохновения для бесед.

Со временем малыш начинает реагировать на голос взрослых. Но поддерживать разговор мне все равно давалось нелегко. Я не знала, что говорить в ответ на аґукання, и не умела болтать детской, по слогам и протяжно.

Я с удивлением наблюдала, как другие люди, видимо, более способные к отцовству, вели полноценные разговоры с моей малышней.

За несколько месяцев общаться с малышом становится легче, он лепечет и смеется, когда к нему обращаются. Впрочем, исследования свидетельствуют, что и в этом возрасте некоторые родители не разговаривают с детьми много.

Однако это может иметь длительные негативные последствия и даже изменения в мозгу, которые можно увидеть на МРТ-снимках.

В зависимости от разговоров, которые эти младенцы слышат с раннего возраста, их дальнейшая жизнь может сложиться очень по-разному

В середине 1990-х годов ученые сделали тревожное открытие о развитии речи у детей. Исследователи Бетти Харт и Тод Ріслі ежемесячно приходили в семей разного социально-экономического статуса и в течение часа записывали разговоры в семье. Эксперимент длился более двух лет.

Проанализировав данные, они обнаружили, что дети из беднейших групп слышали на треть больше слов в течение часа, чем малыши в семьях с более высокими доходами.

Исследователи подсчитали, что на момент, когда детям исполнилось четыре года, языковая разница между малышами из бедных семей и состоятельных составляла 30 миллионов слов.

Исследование, конечно, было далеким от идеального. Оно основывалось на маленькой выборке, к тому же не было известно точно, действительно ли разрыв в количестве слов был таким значительным, как заявили ученые.

Его критики также отмечали, что маленькие дети вряд ли получают какую-либо пользу от услышанных разговоров взрослых, которые говорят друг с другом, а не с ребенком.

Для развития ребенка чрезвычайно важным разговор с обменом репликами, а не пассивное слушание

Если этот «словесный разрыв» действительно существует, это — серьезная проблема. Ведь речевые навыки являются важным показателем успешности в будущем, от школьных лет до университета и карьеры.

«Если эти навыки не достаточны, ребенок в самом начале отстает в этой гонке», — говорит Кэти Хирш-Пасек, руководитель лаборатории детской речи в Университете Темпл в Филадельфии.

Это отставание заметно и в мозге. Современные нейробиологи уже видят, как отражается на мозге ранний контакт с речью.

Проведенные эксперименты убедительно свидетельствуют, что разговоры и общение имеют очень положительные последствия для развития детского мозга.

Связи белого вещества в мозге таких детей крепче в двух основных участках, что отвечают за речь, и таким образом ускоряют обработку информации в них.

Масса исследований подтверждают, что важным является не количество слов, которые ребенок воспринимает на слух пассивно, а качество разговора, обмен фразами, диалог, который требует внимательного слушания и ответа.

Некоторые исследования даже показали, что если общение прервет телефонный звонок, ребенок не запомнит только что услышанное новое слово. Процесс обучения происходит только в ходе сосредоточенного разговора.

Когда взрослый читает ребенку книжку, мозг обоих синхронизируется

Исследования также показывают увеличение серого вещества в участках детского мозга, которые отвечают за социальные навыки.

Это не случайность, ведь во время общения с родителями социальная и речевая участки мозга ребенка одновременно вовлечены и являются чрезвычайно важными в процессе обучения.

Группа нейробиологов из Детской лаборатории Принстона обнаружила, что когда взрослый и ребенок участвовали в интерактивной игре, в пении или чтении, процессы активации нейронов в их мозге синхронизировались.

Тогда, как во время отдельных занятий, этой «нейронной синхронии» не наблюдалось.

«Оба так настроены друг на друга, будто превращаются в один общий мозг, — объясняет исследовательница Гирш-Пасек. — Именно в этот момент и происходит обучение, и именно поэтому совместные беседы являются такими важными».

Социально-экономический статус

Учитывая то, каким важным является общение с ребенком в раннем возрасте, мы должны понять, почему возникает этот «словесный разрыв» между различными семьями.

Родители с высоким уровнем дохода, как правило, разговаривают сложными предложениями с более широким словарным запасом — частично из-за уровень образования

Даже если исследования Харт и Ріслі не было идеальным, вывод о значительном социально-экономический разрыв в речи подтвердили десятки других экспериментов.

Например, в 2008 году ученые из Гарвардского университета установили, что тип разговоров с детьми в семьях с различными доходами заметно отличается. Частично это связано с более высоким уровнем образования родителей.

Как показало исследование, родители с высоким уровнем доходов использовали в разговоре с детьми более длинные предложения и сложнее словарный запас, чем родители в бедных семьях.

«Но эта разница зависела прежде всего от осведомленности родителей в области развития ребенка», — объясняет исследовательница Мередит Рове.

Если между социально-экономическим статусом и языковыми способностями и существует какая-то связь, он прежде всего более низкий уровень образования родителей и больший стресс. Оба фактора влияют на качество общения.

Но социально-экономический статус не является окончательным приговором.

Дети, с которыми в два года много разговаривали, за год имели более развитое вещание

Как показало другое исследование только при участии семей с низким экономическим статусом, развитие речевых способностей у трехлетних малышей прямо зависел от количества и качества общения с родителями в раннем возрасте.

Поскольку все эти дети были из семей с низким социально-экономическим статусом, бедность сама по себе не является причиной худших речевых навыков.

Следовательно, чем больше дети общаются с родителями или другими взрослыми, которые заботятся о них, тем быстрее они учатся.

Впрочем, есть довольно простые способы способствовать качественному общению между детьми и родителями.

Исследователи разместили в супермаркетах самых бедных районов Филадельфии таблички с вопросами, которые побуждают к разговорам, как-вот «Откуда берется молоко?» или «Какой твой любимый овощ?».

В результате содержательное общение родителей с детьми увеличилось на целых 33%.

Чем больше взрослые общаются и разговаривают с детьми, то малыши быстрее учатся

Продолжая эксперимент, ученые разместили в других общественных местах — на остановках, детских площадках или библиотеках — игры, побуждающие к социальной взаимодействия и решения задач.

Важно, что они находились именно в местах, где обычно люди собираются группами. Хотя игры были рассчитаны на детей, они заинтересовали и взрослых.

Проект «Ландшафты для игры и обучения», над которым совместно работали городской совет и архитекторы, имел целью «превратить повседневные места в просторы для обучения».

Наблюдения ученых показали, что некоторые из участков способствовали увеличению разговоров на потрясающие 30-55%.

«Дополнительным бонусом является то, что интересная игра заставляла родителей отложить телефон, смотреть в глаза ребенку и увлеченно с ней разговаривать», — говорит Гирш-Пасек.

«Представьте себе, чего бы мы могли достичь, если бы мир был хотя бы немного веселее». Исследователи утверждают, что воспроизвести такие игровые зоны можно и в других городах. Чтобы было желание.

Проект Urban Thinkscape превращает общественные места на учебные пространства

Британское правительство вскоре запустил в интернете похожий проект — Hungry Little Minds («Голодные маленькие умы»), который поощряет родителей играть и общаться со своими детьми.

Конечно, стресс и занятость повседневной жизни оставляют мало времени для разговоров и игр. Но теперь мы знаем наверняка, что то, сколько и как мы разговариваем со своими детьми, имеет непосредственное влияние на их мозг.

Вооруженная этими знаниями, я теперь более осознанно общаюсь со своим малышом. Я понимаю, в чем смысл лепета и бесед с ним, а также вопросов, на которые он реагирует.

Довольно часто меня наградой есть прекрасная беззубая улыбка. Но малыш может и не соответствовать. Но даже тогда я знаю наверняка, что его мозг развивается, и моя роль в этом процессе чрезвычайно важна.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

Хотите поделиться с нами своими жизненными историями? Напишите о себе на адрес questions.ukrainian@bbc.co.uk и наши журналисты с вами свяжутся.

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Также на эту тему

  • Речь
  • Психическое здоровье
  • Дети
  • Здоровья

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