Автор фото Getty Images

В 1960-е годы археологи обнаружили в долине Нила могильник Джебель сахабов в возрасте от 13400 до 18600 лет и признали его свидетельству первого в мире возможного большого вооруженного конфликта.

Но детальное изучение фрагментов 61 скелета, которое недавно провели специалистов по древней истории и геохимики из Французского национального центра научных исследований (CNRS) и университета Тулуза — Жорес, заставляет усомниться в этой теории.

Вероятно, по словам ученых, в могильнике покоятся останки жертв многочисленных конфликтов, а их причиной могла стать борьба за лучшую участок земли.

Работа ученых опубликована в издании Scientific Reports.

Как поясняет корреспондент ВВС Леонид Лунев, ранее в долине Нила было много воды, рыбы и растительности. Но к концу ледникового периода восточная Сахара превратилась в чрезвычайно засушливый и холодный регион, а разливы Нила стали такими непредсказуемыми, что земли, на которой можно было бы поселиться без угрозы наводнения, почти не осталось.

На эти участки претендовали все больше племен охотников-собирателей, и это не могло не привести к кровопролитию.

В четверти исследованных скелетов из могильника Джебель сахабов эксперты обнаружили следы как смертельных, так и давно заживших ран. Это свидетельствует о том, что они неоднократно участвовали в сражениях.

Автор фото WENDORF ARCHIVES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM

Большинство травм нанесли копьями или стрелами. Жертвами столкновений, засад и рейдов становились не только мужчины, но и женщины и дети.

«Таким образом, мы опровергаем теорию о том, что в могильнике Джебель сахабов похоронены жертвы одного крупного конфликта, — пишут исследователи в своей работе, — скорее всего это были спорадические и повторяющиеся эпизоды насилия, толчком к которым стали большие климатические и природные изменения «.

Действительно, история человечества знала много войн, которые происходили на фоне сильной и велись за право владение плодородными землями.

Впрочем, есть и другая точка зрения, согласно которой связь между климатическими изменениями и ростом насилия значительно сложнее, и на самом деле может наступить момент, когда нищета ресурсов отвергает возможность конфликта, поскольку война обойдется слишком дорого.

Так или иначе, говорят исследователи, но чем больше мы сможем узнать о том, что произошло в конце ледникового периода в Джебель Сахаби, тем больше шансов предсказать, как будут развиваться события в будущем с наступлением резких климатических с мин.

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