Что нужно сделать для того, чтобы запомнить новый материал? Оказывается, что лучше некоторое время не делать вообще ничего. Для эффективной обработки информации нашему мозгу нужен покой, поэтому не отвлекайте его, советуют исследователи.

Мы уверены, что процесс обучения требует немалых усилий. Чем больше мы повторяем и заучиваем, то больше информации останется в нашей памяти.

Однако небольшие перерывы, во время которых вы буквально ничего не делаете, могут быть гораздо более эффективными.

Немного приглушите свет, откиньтесь в кресле и 10-15 минут наслаждайтесь тихим созерцанием.

Неожиданно вы увидите, что только заученные факты запомнились лучше, чем если бы вы потратили это время на интенсивное повторение.

Это же вроде уже давно известно. Процесс обучения должен происходить поэтапно и чередоваться с отдыхом.

Новое исследование, однако, выявило важную деталь. Во время отдыха мозг должен полностью отключаться от любой активности.

Деликатный процесс формирования воспоминаний не должны отвлекать домашние дела, проверка почты и сообщений или даже мысли о них. Дайте мозгу возможность полностью перезагрузиться.

Кто-то назовет этот метод мнемотехникой для ледащих, но он действительно работает

Ничегонеделание выглядит идеальной мнемотехникой для ленивого студента. Впрочем, это открытие оказалось полезным и для людей с серьезными нарушениями памяти.

Метод позволяет пациентам с амнезией или слабоумием обучаться и запоминать новую информацию, что раньше считали невозможным.

То, как состояние полного покоя влияет на память, впервые заметил немецкий психолог Георг Элиас Мюллер еще в 1900 году.

Вместе со своим ассистентом Альфонсом Пілзекером он проводил эксперименты по улучшению памяти, во время которых предлагал участникам запомнить списки составов слов, не связанных каким-либо смыслом.

Одна группа завчала списки один за одним, тогда как вторая делала короткие 6-минутные перерывы перед следующим заданием.

Через полтора часа обе группы показали поразительно разные результаты. Те, кто выполняли задания с перерывами, запомнили почти половину составов из списка.

Тогда как участники второй группы, которые не имели возможности для отдыха, помнили в среднем только 28% информации.

Результат исследования показал, что сразу после получения новой информации наша память является чрезвычайно хрупкой. Первые воспоминания легко нарушить следующей информацией.

Мы живем в эпоху колоссального информационного нагрузку

Однако в течение всего века мало кто обращался к открытию Мюллера. И только в начале 2000-х оно привлекло внимание ученых.

Произошло это благодаря новаторскому исследованию ученых Серхио Делла Салыев из Эдинбургского университета и Нельсона Кованная из Университета Миссури.

Исследователи пытались проверить гипотезу, что для улучшения памяти у людей с неврологическими нарушениями (например, после инсульта) нужно свести к минимуму отвлечение новой информацией.

Они провели эксперимент, похожий на тот, что разработал Мюллер, предложив участникам заучить за 10 минут список из 15 слов.

После этого одна группа продолжала выполнять различные когнитивные тесты, а другая — отдыхала в затемненной комнате, пытаясь не заснуть.

Воздействие даже небольшого вмешательства оказался колоссальным.

Память есть прежде всего уязвима сразу после получения новой информации

Все, участники, которые делали перерыв на отдых (кроме лишь двух пациентов с тяжелой формой амнезии), запомнили втрое больше слов, чем контрольная группа и показали практически такой же результат, как и здоровые люди.

Следующие эксперименты поразили еще больше. Участникам предложили прослушать несколько историй и ответить на вопросы через час.

Те, кто не отдыхал, могли вспомнить лишь 7% содержания. Тогда как в эксперименте с перерывом этот показатель возрастал до потрясающих 79%.

У здоровых участников исследования результаты впечатляли меньше, но после отдыха память улучшалась и у них — в среднем на 10-30%.

Вспомнить все

Существует несколько других мнемостратегій, которые также не требуют больших усилий:

Исследования Делла Писали и Кованая продолжил их бывший студент Микаэла Девар из Университета Хериот-Ватта. Он подтвердил обнаруженные ими результаты в различных условиях и на различных группах людей, как здоровых, так и с нарушениями памяти.

Во время экспериментов испытуемым не говорили, что именно они должны делать во время перерыва, главное — они должны воздерживаться от заглядывания до своих мобильников и не отвлекаться в другой способ.

Но опрос в конце показали, что находясь в тихой затемненной комнате, большинство людей погружались в состояние, похожее на медитацию или мечты на яву.

Впрочем, и мечты тоже могут отвлекать, вмешиваясь в процесс формирования воспоминаний.

Так, в одном эксперименте, когда во время отдыха испытуемым предложили думать о прошлом или представлять себе будущее, они показали худшие результаты.

Поэтому, очевидно, в период отдыха нужно избегать любых интеллектуальных усилий, пытаясь просто «отпустить» мысли.

Точный механизм памяти до сих пор неизвестен. Исследователи соглашаются, что когда информация попадает в наш мозг, она проходит период консолидации, после чего закрепляется в долгосрочной памяти.

Чтобы закрепить новую информацию, мозгу нужен перерыв

Ранее считалось, что это происходит преимущественно во сне, в процессе тесного взаимодействия между гіпокампом, где сначала формируются воспоминания, и корой головного мозга.

Во время этого взаимодействия возникают новые нейронные связи, необходимые для воспроизведения информации в будущем.

Повышенная ночная активность мозга, очевидно, является причиной того, что мы обычно хорошо запоминаем вещи, которые выучили перед сном.

Но, как недавно выяснили ученые, этот процесс не ограничивается только сном. Такая же нейронная активность происходит и в состоянии спокойного отдыха.

Похоже, для закрепления информации мозг старается воспользоваться любым моментом времени, и мы можем помочь ему, уменьшив дополнительную стимуляцию.

Очевидно, отвлечение другими стимулами являются, прежде всего, вредным для мозга с неврологическими нарушениями.

Именно поэтому периоды отдыха так хорошо влияли на память людей, которые пережили инсульт или имели болезни Альцгеймера.

Регулярный отдых сприятимt улучшению памяти у всех нас

Впрочем, время от времени все должны давать своему мозгу отдых, считают психологи Томас Бейглі из Университета Ноттингема и Эйден Хорнер из Йоркского университета.

Перерывы, во время которых влияние других стимулов максимально снижена, помогут всем нам лучше запоминать новую информацию.

Улучшение памяти даже на 10-30% может помочь студенту повысить свою оценку. Итак, готовясь к экзаменам, необходимо регулярно давать мозгу отдохнуть 10-15 минут.

В эпоху колоссального информационного нагрузка постоянной перезарядки нуждается не только наш смартфон, но, бесспорно, и мозг.

Прочитать оригинал этой статьи на английском языке можно на сайте BBC Future.

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