Как утверждает онлайн-вестник Science в записи от 9 февраля, паразит Plasmodium falciparum производит особое вещество, привлекающее москитов к инфицированному хозяину, что помогает плазмодию распространяться эффективнее. Открытие дало ответ на вопрос, почему комары часто предпочитают больных малярией, а не здоровых людей.

Биолог Нушин Емами (Noushin Emami) и другие исследователи из Стокгольмского университета, исследуя влияние 4-гидрокси-3-метил-бут-2-енил пирофосфата (сокращенно ГМБПФ, или HMBPP) на иммунную систему комаров Anopheles gambiae, получили неожиданный результат: насекомые предпочитали пить больше крови, если в ней находится это вещество. После серии экспериментов ученые, среди которых Ингрид Фэй (Ingrid Faye), сделали вывод, что соединение влияет на поведение комаров.

Был выяснен любопытный факт: ГМБПФ в индивидуальном виде и в смеси с иными веществами, не относящимися к красным клеткам крови, не вызывает у насекомых никакого интереса. ГМБПФ заставляет красные тельца синтезировать больше окиси углерода и некоторых других веществ, которые привлекают москитов – предполагают, что эти вещества пахнут нектаром, которым питаются анофелесы до кровавой трапезы.

Пока непонятно, насколько сильно ГМБПФ увеличивает привлекательность больного для комаров, но это исследование может стать серьёзным шагом для искоренения малярии.


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