Звук прихлёбывания кофе или хруст яблока может слегка раздражать — но некоторые люди от этого просто «закипают». Гнев и тревога в ответ на повседневные звуки еды, питья и дыхания появляются из-за повышенной активности в частях мозга, которые обрабатывают и управляют эмоциями, — как сообщают ученые на страницах британского научного журнала Current Biology от 2-го февраля.

«Людей с таким заболеванием, называемым «мисофония», часто считают просто чрезмерно чувствительными», — говорит Дженнифер Джо Браут (Jennifer Jo Brout), клинический психолог, не участвовавшая в исследовании.

«Это действительно подтверждает, что это неврологическое заболевание», — говорит Браут, которая является основателем Программы сенсорной обработки и управления эмоциями в медицинском центре университета Дьюка (Duke University Medical Center).

Исследователи проигрывали звуки 20-и человекам с мисофонией и 22-м здоровым людям. Некоторые звуки были нейтральными, такие как шум дождя. Другие, такие как плач ребенка, были раздражающими для обеих групп людей, но не вызывали мисофонической реакции. Третий набор звуков вызвал недомогание у людей с мисофонией – это жевательные и дыхательные шумы.

МРТ головного мозга показало, что обе группы людей отреагировали аналогично на нейтральные и раздражающие звуки. Куда более драматичную реакцию у мисофоников вызвали звуки жевания и дыхания. Они вызвали большую активность в передней островковой коре — структуре мозга, участвующей в эмоциональных процессах. Также ученые обнаружили структурные различия — больше соединений передней коры с такими структурами, как миндалина и гиппокамп, которые тоже помогают в обработке эмоций.

Люди с мисофонией также демонстрируют повышенную частоту сердечных сокращений и проводимость кожи. Это что-то вроде реакции «убежать или бороться», которая срабатывает при столкновении с диким зверем или во время публичного выступления.

«Звуки, которые игнорируются большинством людей изо дня в день, создают очень сильную эмоциональную реакцию у мисофоников», — говорит соавтор исследования Сухбиндер Кумар (Sukhbinder Kumar), когнитивный нейробиолог из Университета Ньюкасла (Англия). Их мозг приписывает особые дополнительные значения отдельным звукам. Но до сих пор неясно, почему только определенные звуки вызывают такую реакцию.

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